Author Topic: Technology and Science News  (Read 5847 times)

Offline wajahat

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Technology and Science News
« on: March 29, 2013, 11:43:25 am »
Yahan par technology aur science se related news, articals aur updates share kren.
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maine pehle english mein postings ki par doston ko masla ho raha hy english ki waja se to ab maine faisla kiya hy k har posting urdu mein krnga.
Ap sb b mera sath dain.
« Last Edit: March 30, 2013, 10:41:17 am by wajahat »
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Technology and Science News
« on: March 29, 2013, 11:43:25 am »

Offline wajahat

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Re: Technology and Science News
« Reply #1 on: March 29, 2013, 12:07:38 pm »
Swarming Robots Could Be the Servants of the Future
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Mar. 28, 2013 — Swarms of robots acting together to carry out jobs could provide new opportunities for humans to harness the power of machines.
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Researchers in the Sheffield Centre for Robotics, jointly established by the University of Sheffield and Sheffield Hallam University, have been working to program a group of 40 robots, and say the ability to control robot swarms could prove hugely beneficial in a range of contexts, from military to medical.
The researchers have demonstrated that the swarm can carry out simple fetching and carrying tasks, by grouping around an object and working together to push it across a surface.
The robots can also group themselves together into a single cluster after being scattered across a room, and organize themselves by order of priority.
Dr Roderich Gross, head of the Natural Robotics Lab, in the Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering at the University of Sheffield, says swarming robots could have important roles to play in the future of micromedicine, as 'nanobots' are developed for non-invasive treatment of humans. On a larger scale, they could play a part in military, or search and rescue operations, acting together in areas where it would be too dangerous or impractical for humans to go. In industry too, robot swarms could be put to use, improving manufacturing processes and workplace safety.
The programming that the Universityof Sheffield team has developed to control the robots is deceptively simple. For example, if the robots arebeing asked to group together, each robot only needs to be able to work out if there is another robot in front of it. If there is, it turns on the spot; if there isn't, it moves in a wider circle until it finds one.
Dr Gross said: "We are developing Artificial Intelligence to control robots in a variety of ways. The key is to work out what is the minimum amount of information needed by the robot to accomplish its task. That's important because it means the robot may not need any memory,and possibly not even a processing unit, so this technology could work for nanoscale robots, for example in medical applications."
This research is funded by a Marie Curie European Reintegration Grant within the 7th European Community Framework Programme. Additional support has been provided by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.
Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3e12RicAy1Q
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Re: Technology and Science News
« Reply #1 on: March 29, 2013, 12:07:38 pm »

Offline wajahat

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Re: Technology and Science News
« Reply #2 on: March 29, 2013, 01:03:09 pm »
Nanorobotics
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Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometre (10-9 metres).
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More specifically, nanorobotics refersto the still largely theoretical nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobots.
Nanorobots (nanobots or nanoids) are typically devices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometres and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components.
As no artificial non-biological nanorobots have so far been created,they remain a hypothetical concept at this time.
Another definition sometimes used isa robot which allows precision interactions with nanoscale objects, or can manipulate with nanoscale resolution.
Following this definition even a large apparatus such as an atomic force microscope can be considered ananorobotic instrument when configured to perform nanomanipulation.
Also, macroscale robots or microrobots which can move with nanoscale precision can also be considered nanorobots.
For more information about the topic Nanorobotics , read the full article at Wikipedia.org , or see the following related articles:
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Re: Technology and Science News
« Reply #3 on: March 29, 2013, 01:09:34 pm »
Robotic surgery
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Robotic surgery is the use of robots inperforming surgery.
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Three major advances aided by surgical robots have been remote surgery, minimally invasive surgery, and unmanned surgery.
Major potential advantages of robotic surgery are precision and miniaturization.
Further advantages are articulation beyond normal manipulation and three-dimensional magnification.
Some surgical robots are autonomous, and they are not always under the control of a surgeon.
They are only sometimes used as tools to extend the surgical skills of atrained surgeon.
For more information about the topic Robotic surgery , read the full article at Wikipedia.org .
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Re: Technology and Science News
« Reply #4 on: March 29, 2013, 01:12:09 pm »
Industrial robot
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An industrial robot is an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes.
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The field of industrial robotics may be more practically defined as the study, design and use of robot systems for manufacturing (a top-level definition relying on the prior definition of robot).
Typical applications of industrial robots include welding, painting, ironing, assembly, pick and place, palletizing, product inspection, and testing, all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision.
The most commonly used robot configurations for industrial automation, include articulated robots, SCARA robots and gantry robots.
In the context of general robotics, most types of industrial robots wouldfall into the category of robot arms.
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Re: Technology and Science News
« Reply #5 on: March 29, 2013, 01:16:07 pm »
Robot calibration
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Robot calibration is the process of identifying the real geometrical parameters in the kinematic structure of an industrial robot, i.e., the relative position and orientation of links and joints in the robot.
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A calibrated robot has a higher absolute positioning accuracy than an uncalibrated one, i.e., the real position of the robot end effector corresponds better to the position calculated from the mathematical model of the robot.
Absolute positioning accuracy is particularly releveant in connection with robot exchangability and off-line programming of precision applications.
Besides the calibration of the robot, the calibration of its tools and the workpieces it works with can minimize occurring inaccuracies and improve process security.
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Re: Technology and Science News
« Reply #6 on: March 29, 2013, 02:14:26 pm »
Brain Scans Might Predict Future Criminal Behavior
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Mar. 28, 2013 — A new study conducted by The Mind Research Network in Albuquerque, N.M., showsthat neuroimaging data can predict the likelihood of whether a criminal will reoffend following release from prison.
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The paper, which is to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , studied impulsive and antisocial behavior and centered on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a portion of the brain that deals with regulating behavior and impulsivity.
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The study demonstrated that inmates with relatively low anterior cingulate activity were twice as likely to reoffend than inmates with high-brain activity in this region.
"These findings have incredibly significant ramifications for the future of how our society deals with criminal justice and offenders," said Dr. Kent A. Kiehl, who was senior author on the study and is director of mobile imaging at MRN and an associate professor of psychology at the University of New Mexico. "Not only does this study give us a tool to predict which criminals may reoffendand which ones will not reoffend, it also provides a path forward for steering offenders into more effective targeted therapies to reduce the risk of future criminal activity."
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The study looked at 96 adult male criminal offenders aged 20-52 who volunteered to participate in research studies. This study population was followed over a period of up to four years after inmates were released from prison.
"These results point the way toward a promising method of neuroprediction with great practical potential in the legal system," said Dr. Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Stillman Professor of Practical Ethics in the Philosophy Department and the Kenan Institute for Ethics at DukeUniversity, who collaborated on the study. "Much more work needs to be done, but this line of research could help to make our criminal justice system more effective."
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The study used the Mind Research Network's Mobile Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) System to collect neuroimaging data as the inmate volunteers completed a series of mental tests.
"People who reoffended were much more likely to have lower activity in the anterior cingulate cortices than those who had higher functioning ACCs," Kiehl said. "This means we cansee on an MRI a part of the brain thatmight not be working correctly -- giving us a look into who is more likely to demonstrate impulsive and anti-social behavior that leads to re-arrest."
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The anterior cingulate cortex of the brain is "associated with error processing, conflict monitoring, response selection, and avoidance learning," according to the paper. People who have this area of the brain damaged have been "shown toproduce changes in disinhibition, apathy, and aggressiveness. Indeed, ACC-damaged patients have been classed in the 'acquired psychopathicpersonality' genre."
Kiehl says he is working on developing treatments that increase activity within the ACC to attempt to treat the high-risk offenders.
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The four-year study was supported by grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), and pilot funds by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Law and Neuroscience Project. The study was conducted in collaborationwith the New Mexico Corrections Department.
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Re: Technology and Science News
« Reply #7 on: March 29, 2013, 02:19:58 pm »
Saturn Is Like an Antiques Shop, Cassini Suggests; Moons and Rings Date Back to Solar System's Birth
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Mar. 27, 2013 — A new analysis of data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft suggests that Saturn's moons and rings are gently worn vintage goods from around the time of our solar system's birth.
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Though they are tinted on the surface from recent "pollution," these bodies date back more than 4 billion years. They are from around the time that the planetary bodies in our neighborhood began to form out of the protoplanetary nebula, the cloud of material still orbiting the sun after its ignition as a star. The paper, led by Gianrico Filacchione, a Cassini participating scientist at Italy's National Institute for Astrophysics, Rome, has just been published online by The Astrophysical Journal .
"Studying the Saturnian system helpsus understand the chemical and physical evolution of our entire solar system," said Filacchione. "We know now that understanding this evolution requires not just studying asingle moon or ring, but piecing together the relationships intertwining these bodies."
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Data from Cassini's visual and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) have revealed how water ice and also colors -- which are the signs of non-water and organic materials --are distributed throughout the Saturnian system.
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The spectrometer's data in the visible part of the light spectrum show that coloring on the rings and moons generally is only skin-deep.
Using its infrared range, VIMS also detected abundant water ice -- too much to have been deposited by comets or other recent means. So theauthors deduce that the water ices must have formed around the time of the birth of the solar system, because Saturn orbits the sun beyond the so-called "snow line." Out beyond the snow line, in the outer solar system where Saturn resides, the environment is conducive to preserving water ice, like a deep freezer. Inside the solar system's "snow line," the environment is much closer to the sun's warm glow, and ices and other volatiles dissipate more easily.
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The colored patina on the ring particles and moons roughly corresponds to their location in the Saturn system. For Saturn's inner ringparticles and moons, water-ice spray from the geyser moon Enceladus has a whitewashing effect.
Farther out, the scientists found that the surfaces of Saturn's moons generally were redder the farther they orbited from Saturn. Phoebe, one of Saturn's outer moons and an object thought to originate in the far-off Kuiper Belt, seems to be shedding reddish dust that eventually rouges the surface of nearby moons, such as Hyperion and Iapetus.
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A rain of meteoroids from outside the system appears to have turned some parts of the main ring system --notably the part of the main rings known as the B ring -- a subtle reddish hue. Scientists think the reddish color could be oxidized iron -- rust -- or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which could be progenitors of more complex organicmolecules.
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One of the big surprises from this research was the similar reddish coloring of the potato-shaped moon Prometheus and nearby ring particles. Other moons in the area were more whitish.
"The similar reddish tint suggests that Prometheus is constructed from material in Saturn's rings," said co-author Bonnie Buratti, a VIMS team member based at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. "Scientists had been wonderingwhether ring particles could have stuck together to form moons -- sincethe dominant theory was that the rings basically came from satellites being broken up. The coloring gives us some solid proof that it can work the other way around, too."
"Observing the rings and moons withCassini gives us an amazing bird's-eye view of the intricate processes atwork in the Saturn system, and perhaps in the evolution of planetarysystems as well," said Linda Spilker, Cassini project scientist, based at JPL."What an object looks like and how it evolves depends a lot on location, location, location."
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The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The visual and infrared mapping spectrometer team is based at the University of Arizona, Tucson.
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